2.3 The Synthetic Record of Life

Copyright © ‘Reality’ Doug 2013

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To Philosopher to King by ‘Reality’ Doug is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

The truth is self-consistent and science gives us our best understanding of our phenomenal context we call life. It is our gameboard because we the compelled players more often win limited resources with intensional strategy. The value of a strategy depends on the context. Contextual variation makes progressive sophistication possible, and civilized people embrace that fact by definition. This is the context of your life. I warn you that this segment is rather long. Take a break?

In the beginning, some 13.7 billion years ago, which is the farthest back we can deduce, the mass-energy substance of our universe and ourselves existed as an incredibly hot, pressurized, erupting speck of infinitesimal size called a singularity. Transition to a volumed state was the birth of spacetime at the epoch of our universe. Rapid expansion caused cooling, and subatomic particles precipitated out, forming mostly, from what we can identify, photons (energy) and plasma (matter). The plasma cooled and precipitated further to form mostly hydrogen and helium atoms. Photons, the carrier particles of electromagnetic radiation including visible light, separated out from the matter now that the previously ionized electrons were bound to atomic nuclei. The universe became transparent, thermal heat was released from everywhere in all directions, and infrared light shined as a cosmic background noise.

The hydrogen and helium accreted by the attraction of gravity into gas clouds and then stars, with gaseous planets if the swirling action was just so. The stars and clusters of stars were no less attracted to matter than the gas clouds consumed or remaining, and it all formed galaxies and clusters of galaxies. In time natural selection favoring cooperative motion created orderly, bulbous swirls of spiral galaxies. Black holes are concentrations of matter so large that its gravity is inescapable, even by photons, within a certain envelope called the event horizon. Black holes exist in the centers of some galaxies. Still, the universe continued to expand, putting space between the galactic clumps of light matter that might perturb or consolidate each other. For reasons unknown, galaxies are arranged into a lace pattern of filaments and sheets skirting bubble-shaped voids of nothingness, dark matter, the living essence of Elvis…we don’t know.

Stars were and are born when the gravitational pressure of a gas ball ignites a fusion reaction. The pressure raises temperature and ionizes the gas. Fusion occurs when the nuclei ions are forced close enough together such that the strong force (that’s the name) of attraction overwhelms the electromagnetic force of repulsion. Some of the matter is converted to radiated energy in the process: E=mc2. Let there be light, all kinds. The matter left behind is heavier in the sense of having a bigger (positively charged) ion and greater density. The heavier elements up to iron are formed this way. The ionized nuclei later capture electrons electromagnetically at lower temperatures to form atoms. Electrons don’t participate in fusion directly, but they explode on contact with positrons created by the conversion of protons into nuclei neutrons. Protons are never bound directly together for very long. Positrons are antimatter opposites to electrons, and the physical association of the two results in a matter-antimatter explosion of gamma radiation, two photons of energy at the highest tier of the astrophysics classification system called the electromagnetic spectrum. The photons often lose energy on the way out of a star. This is the nature of thermonuclear fusion, and it accounts for the creation of all the isotopes and elements past simple hydrogen, starting with hydrogen-2 and the very short lived helium-2, up through the radioisotope nickel-56, which decays into radioisotope cobalt-56 and then stable iron-56 prominent in earth’s composition and carbon-hardened into steel.

The heaviest naturally occurring elements, from cobalt-59 to uranium-238 and plutonium-244, are created along with lighter elements when a moderately large star able to fuse silicone exhausts its fuel in the hot core converted to nickel-56. Lighter elements are displaced far enough from the hotter center to prevent fusion. Without fusion reactions to counteract gravity, the star collapses under its own weight and a dense core develops. If the core is not a black hole, it is a proto-neutron star. Falling material hits the forming dense core as it releases neutrinos. The material rebounds in a nuclear powered shock wave dispersing the outer layers and perhaps core material as well. The shock wave acting upon the star matter causes supernova nucleosynthesis. Energy burst permits energy-consuming (endothermic) fusion as well as the exothermic fusion of stellar nucleosynthesis characteristic of stars.

Fusion also occurred between 3 and 20 seconds into the Big Bang in a process called Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The simplest ions protons and neutrons precipitated from the matter-energy substance once the temperature and perhaps pressure were low enough. The opportunity for fusion did not last long. About a third of the ionic material formed helium ions and some tiny amount made heavier ions. Most ions became hydrogen when the cooling allowed ‘recombination’ with free electrons roughly 377,000 later. It was actually the first atomic combination.

Fusion is the opposite of fission, which is the decay of atoms into two or more lighter nuclei and any radiated energy. Only elements heavier than iron produce energy when fissioned. Only elements lighter than iron produce energy when fused. Fission not fusion occurs in nuclear power plants. Commercial fusion would make energy hugely abundant without oxidation and carbon emissions that the NWO wants to regulate for your subjugation. Alpha-decay is (spontaneous) radioactive decay in which the nucleus emits an alpha particle, consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha radiation is usually not harmful because the large size of alpha particles prevents them from traveling very far. Paper is an effective shield. Internal exposure to a source of alpha radiation is the concern, as with radon gas. The decay product of radon is the radioactive metal or metalloid polonium, a solid. The decay continues rather quickly until lead-210 is produced. After a long wait, usually, the last steps of the uranium-238 decay chain stop at lead-206. Radon is a decay product with precursors all the way up to uranium-238.

Above and below the radon position, some of the decay steps produce alpha radiation and others produce beta radiation. Beta-decay happens when a nucleus emits a beta particle, which is an electron or positron. An electron emission is accompanied by an electron antineutrino emission. A positron emission is accompanied by an electron neutrino emission. Beta particles are high in energy and speed, and dangerous, even though they can be stopped by an aluminum sheet.

Gamma radiation and x-rays are high energy photons and also electromagnetic waves. Strangely, light can be represented equivalently as carrier particles or waves. Gamma rays and x-rays are penetrating and dangerous. Now we know our A, B, Г’s.

One more clarifying digression to bring surety of frame to this account of our cosmological context is in order. The Doppler effect changes the observed or received frequency of an energy wave because relative movement of the source toward or away from the observer causes a shortening (blueshift) or lengthening (redshift) of the wavelength observed. In the case of light, the observed incident velocity cannot be changed. All electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light for the medium in question. According to Einstein’s Relativity, no matter how fast an observer travels relative to a light source, that light is observed to move at the specific speed of light for that medium. Light travels fastest in a vacuum. For discussion purposes here, we suppose the vacuum of space as our medium and ignore the content of space. The medium of space turns out to be interesting because space itself is expanding more and more rapidly.

We have the distinctly different and usual motion of light sources and receivers within the universe called ‘peculiar motion’. The regular flavor of the Doppler effect equates emitted and perceived frequencies (and wavelengths) by assuming the velocities of source and receiver relative to any other frame are relative to each other by simple addition per Newtonian physics. If you are in your car driving at 40 mph following a car moving at 45 mph, from your car the other car is moving away at 5 mph: 40 + x = 45.

Special relativity demonstrates that simple spacial addition known as vector addition does not work for speeds that are not negligible compared to the speed of light. Let c be the speed of light so that 0.40c means 40% of the speed of light. If you are in a spaceship exiting the solar system at 0.40c while following a spaceship traveling away from the Sun 0.05c faster at 0.45c, from your spaceship the other spaceship is moving away at 0.05c/0.82 ≈ 0.06c. The relativistic Doppler effect accounts for the time dilation (spacetime warping) correlating spacetime frames differing by a high relative velocity. Formulas describing the relativistic Doppler effect are suitable to calculate the relative peculiar motion of stars, which is physically limited to the speed of light.

The universe itself, meaning spacetime, expands faster and faster. Cosmological expansion has no known speed limit. Whether physicists have any working idea of the acceleration profile, for example constant acceleration following the cosmological inflation finished in the first split second of this reality, I don’t know. We assume expansion is isotropic, meaning uniform in all directions, à la the Cosmological Principle. It then follows that at any fixed moment in time for an observer, speed of separation with points of space is proportional to the distance to those points. More evenly expanding space in play between means faster (and more apparent) separation. The expansion of space makes the traveling light that is cosmic background radiation redshift into longer waves of less energy, or equivalently photons of less energy, but the speed is still light speed. Time slows down for the traveling photon, or something like that. We can guess the distance traveled is somewhere between the distance at time of emission and at time of reception, maybe the unfurled distance? Most scholarly types parrot vogue ideas more than they define or address what they or we don’t know. The supposed mechanism of interaction between expanding spacetime and attenuating electromagnetic energy is apparently so obvious we need not consider it explicitly. We are simply to believe a cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of the universe such that photons loose energy without losing speed, and to take the distance readings at face value. A better understanding of gravity and/or dark energy might explain causality where many ‘thinkers’ are content to apotheosize mystery as impenetrable principle. Without open curiosity from a few eccentrics, we would believe lightning strikes and solar eclipses are godly actions directed at people like us for immoral offenses. Repent, ye, of your dogmatic faith!

The observed redshift in all observed light conforms to the Lemaître-Hubble effect. Beyond the shorter distances of galactic neighborliness where gravity is relevant, observed light is redshifted in proportion to the distance it has traveled. Direction does not matter and the earth is not a special frame of reference. The isotropic uniformity of the expansion of the universe is different than the centered, radially symmetric nature of an explosion of matter. The redshift-blueshift of peculiar motion turns out to be tiny compared to cosmological redshift at distances beyond the scale of galactic clusters, something like tens of mega-light years. To wit, at distances increasingly beyond the distance gravity can slip the pull of expansion, relative motion due to gravity is increasingly insignificant component. The observable universe is the universe not moving away from us faster than the speed of light so we can see it. When we look up at the night sky, we are looking back in effective times at effective distances somewhat exaggerated.

That light includes the thermal heat released some 377,000 years after the start of the Big Bang by the deionization of the early universe. The light was mainly infrared light, but now due to cosmological redshift it’s microwaves. The Cosmological redshift has expanded those wavelengths over a thousandfold in the past 13.7 or so billion years. That would be how much larger the universe has grown since the recombination.

Our star system, the one with the Sun, formed 4.6 billion years ago. The size of our Sun makes it a white class G2 with a life of about 10 billion. We have another 5 billion to go. Earth’s atmosphere makes the Sun look yellow. Earth like the Sun formed from the coagulating, spiraling pre-solar disk of loosely floating molecules called a nebula. Planets and moons formed from the coagulation of material within orbital bands. The proto-earth formed about this far from the Sun, collided with Theia, and became the Earth and Moon. There is no always dark side of the Moon. There is only an unseen outward side because the Moon spins and orbits Earth at the exact same angular rate, due to the formative collision. The material of earth includes heavier elements necessarily made in one or more bygone stars. (Any chance production by Big Bang nucleosynthesis is negligible.) The molten iron core generates a magnetic field by its movement. The field shields us and our atmosphere from the solar wind. Mars lost its magnetic shield 4 billion years ago at the tender age of 600 million years old and has been losing its atmosphere ever since.

In the gaseous-liquid primordial soup of early earth, molecules reconfigured themselves in chemical reactions. Eventually formed were replicator molecules. Replicators are lengthy molecules tending to do two things cyclically: (1) attract molecular material to bond along side themselves to form a duplicate or reverse image of themselves, and (2) unzip or otherwise separate into two empty replicators, allowing the process to repeat. These replicator molecules attempted without volition to convert the primordial soup to their molecular species. They were acting alive. The population of fodder molecules declined until the practical choices were reproductive failure or cannibalism. Cannibalism of an exact duplicate or reverse copy, while possible, lacks reproductive advantage.

Competition between replicator designs for dominance makes reproduction profoundly interesting. Competition must come from somewhere. Initially, the creation of a novel replicator species had to be an accident of inorganic chemistry, but such accidents we can suppose are rare in a diverse primordial stew and astronomically more unlikely in a sea of obedient, dead end conformance. Ten billion years isn’t forever and open competition is ecologically good.

One could say accidents of replication chemistry came to the rescue of progress, but that would be philosophically backward. Might makes right, and progress is mightier than stagnation. The most powerful replicators hit the evolutionary sweet spot by making errors infrequently but not too infrequently. If errors were too frequent, the replicator design would not receive enough field tests to be accurately rated by population share. If the errors were too infrequent, the replicator design would be virtually stagnant. Progress came to the rescue of accidental change, by subjecting it to a race condition called evolution. Evolutionary change is not steadily increasing sophistication, as the student of history knows. It’s more like a game of rock, paper, scissors…machine gun. Think of this as another Einsteinian principle of Social Relativity: Increasing sophistication of ecological beings is confined to grow along evolutionary paths subject to speed and inclusion limitations of the ecological replacement and process.

Through natural selection, insentient replicators were at war. Defensive forts of membrane walls developed, but these forts were awash in potential fuel. The forts became metabolic armored vehicles running on fermentation. What we call life was born, something akin to archaea and bacteria. Some cells grouped into colonies and perhaps specialized in simple behavior. More complex cells with specialized compartments evolved. The non-cannibalistic engine of photosynthesis emerged, likely during a fermentation fuel crisis, converting carbon dioxide and water into food and the toxic waste product oxygen. Many species of fermentation-dependent life died, but the evil pollutant oxygen facilitated a new oxidation engine design and created a protective ozone layer around earth. Primitive archaea and bacteria took advantage of these alternative energy sources, as did the more complex cells. From complex cells fungi and plants evolved. Respiration made roving oxidizer stomachs possible. Animals evolved. Both plants and animals developed sexual reproduction to scramble their vulnerabilities to harmful invader microorganisms causing disease. Viruses had evolved toward simplicity by parasitic reliance upon a host cell for reproduction. Evolutionary progress tends toward greater range of complexity not greater complexity alone.

The genetic programming of animals behaviors is individual-intensive and slow compared to the animal behaviors themselves. Longer lifespans result in slower gene evolution. A learning brain evolved to adapt animal behavior to individual circumstances. Parents of mammals and birds transmitted organic design armed with perceptual constructs. The building blocks of evolutionary animal design are genes, a replication unit of sexual reproduction subject to natural selection in an ecosystem of caloric currency. What about ideas?

What Richard Dawkins seminally suggested in his book The Selfish Gene is that evolution is generic, elegantly simple, and can evolve itself. Replicating molecules can evolve into cellular life, cellular life can evolve into intelligent life, and intelligently social life can form an ecosystem for the evolution of ideas. He defined memes, as may be succinctly edited, as the replicating units of cultural transmission in the soup of human culture. Brain beats brawn in the long run because brawn is evolutionarily too slow. Not that a single replicating unit, such as a gene or meme, is atomic and has no useful value to transmit with any subpart alone. A replicating unit is more precise in the philosophy than in the analysis.
Memes are mistakenly described as ideas, but memes if they are analogous to genes are generationally long-lived self-replicating unit concepts. Memes are idea parts that are ideas, but most ideas are too complex to properly be memes. Freedom is a meme. It cannot be broken down into smaller parts. It conveys no context. A representative republic is an idea composed of many memes. It conveys its own context by relation of its parts and does not replicate in whole with high fidelity. The sufficiently small elements of a representative republic do, but small details can easily be altered in the mental reconstruction of a sufficiently complex idea. There is no exactly right way to discern a priori without knowledge of the evolutionary steps what the generationally long-lived replicating units of something nontrivial are, but in the case of the idea of a representative republic we could intelligently guess freedom, responsibility, campaign, election, representation, legislative body, law, statute, etc. Memes and genes lack context and function until they are assembled, for example: a recent enactment of statutory law was met with protest.

A simple idea that might catch on is called a slogan, maxim, aphorism, etc. If we wish to quickly denote how a simple idea could foster duplication of itself into socially popular cognizance in the mind pool rather than conceptual preponderance in the meme pool and thus not misconstruing perceptual evolution, some other term like ‘mimplant’ if not ‘adage’ would be appropriate. We are talking about a hosted singleton that only might have multiple applications, so ‘mirus’ would erroneously suggest mental preponderance within each mind as well as across a group of minds. Individual memes are far more likely to find manifold uses within a single mind because of relational flexibility that comes with the smallness of unit favored by replication longevity.

Anywhere we have natural selection involving replicating units, we ought to consider that we have evolution and adaptive change. We have evolution of technology. Technology is technique with physical resources and the knowledge of that technique. You can drill. You can heat. You can brace. You can weave. Technology evolves quickly because inferior outcome has weaker advocacy. Culture is technique between societal fellows, and the knowledge of it. It evolves slowly because…let’s say the First Law of Social Relativity. I’m switching the order to parallel the development of General Relativity from Special Relativity. The speed limit of light in empty space is first; the equivalence of gravity and the force of acceleration is second. Technology and culture evolve in tandem, but resistance to cultural evolution leads to imbalance that destabilizes society. Globalization first evolved primarily in economic terms and now is evolving primarily in political terms. Multiculturalism is inherently backward and destabilizing, but isn’t that the point?

People have an agenda. Should be obvious. We are mortals in a race condition to leverage formulas of cooperation and competition. You could eat livestock or put it to work. You could join a particular business or its competitor. You could kill or you could heal. There is a season, turn, turn. The specific point I am making is that people have a vested interest in what you believe to make their success a reality. Many are unscrupulous, or of hostile scruples, and will spin (expediently represent and interpret) the functional context we share. It is a well-know adage that victors write history.

As I review the anthropologic portion of the synthetic record we have of life, I will point out cases of spin, as I just did with multiculturalism. The types of spin I will consider are, by societal sphere: historical, religious, scientific, and educational. Naturally, it’s all political spin, having the ultimate purpose of power over others. Spin implies falsehood for exploitive manipulation. I am not inferring that all history, all religious beliefs, all science, or all education is coercively false. By historical spin I mean historiographic manipulation. By religious spin I mean mystic manipulation. By scientific spin I mean technocratic manipulation. By educational spin I mean doctrinal manipulation. I attempt to have a bias for truth, and I am successful I think, but I am not official spokesman for The Truth. I recommend the obvious: think for yourself. Perceiving is not necessarily thinking. Run, hamster, run.

History only goes back so far because human capacity for writing had to be invented after spoken language was. In prehistoric times, which lasted in some places longer than others, we can only go by artifacts and oral traditions. Academics are split if not confused on the taxonomic distinction of human beings from other closely related animals. Homo sapiens (human beings) could be a species. A species is defined as an exhaustive category of individuals related by genetic breeding compatibility. Members of separate species lack breeding compatibility, but the borderlines get fuzzy as with mules. If humans are a species, extinct hominids most like humans were separate species of the same genus homo, as in homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals). A group of related species is called a genus.

A species is sometimes subdivided into subspecies having notable genetic trait distinctions maintained by reproductive disassociation not reproductive incompatibility. Subspecies may develop by separations of time or space. If Neanderthals were able to breed with early homo sapiens, they were the subspecies homo sapiens nanderthalensis and we are the subspecies homo sapiens sapiens. If compelling new evidence reveals something critical, then we could find that both taxonomies are wrong. When I say wrong, remember that in the land of the blind the one-eyed man is king. Both taxonomies are true enough to be more useful than total ignorance. Now we are on the cusp of the sensitive issue race. Actually, the perception of race is sensitive in minds of self-delusional self-identity that shudder at personal inconsistency with enlightening evidence. I will write frankly. The touchy reader is referred to psychoanalysis with introspection and invited to stop reading this!

A million years ago early apes of the genus homo lived in Africa, Europe and Asia (the Old World) during the Early Stone Age. Their widespread success was based on adaptive reasoning, bipedal balance, and stone tools. Being upright makes toolmaking and tool wielding by hands practical. The handaxe (with no lever handle) made by this time suggests a craftsmanship and art later perfected in pear cut gems.

Our species homo sapiens came to exist in Africa around 200,000 years ago. By 130,000 years ago, our ‘closest cousins’ the Neanderthals had appeared too. From that time until roughly 30,000 years ago, they ranged across Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula, and points west within Southwest Asia. Compared to us, Neanderthals were a bit shorter, more muscular, more adapted to cold, and had brains of similar if not larger size. They made and used paint, valued aesthetics, made fire, and performed ceremonial rites. They were not dumb cavemen; their artifacts are well preserved by nature in caves.

Migration out of Africa by homo sapiens started 125,000 years ago. Colonization attempts may have been unsuccessful until about 70,000 years ago, but eventually homo sapiens replaced all other homo genus species in the Old World where they ranged. Our ancestors were unstoppable, colonizing essentially the entire Old World. By 12,000 years ago modern humans lived throughout the New World too. The Early Stone Age was about to give way to the accelerating advance of human technology, but human evolution did not rest.

Race once meant ethnicity, but today it is used to mean subdivisions of color. Because of political contention, there is much disinformation about race. I will express race in plain and useful terms of color confirmed by structural features and reproductive isolation. Without regard to the hysterical moron, I define race in terms of five genetically based hues: black, white, yellow, red, and Hispanic. These five groups have undergone genetically and culturally distinct developments as the record of humanity shows. Treating these five groups is natural and necessary to expressing the development of humanity since homo sapiens migrated out of Africa to populate the world. The classic racial treatment of mankind used Negroid, Caucasoid, and Mongoloid. The last term was used as a catchall including reds (Amerinds). In my classification system, not everyone fits into a race because not everyone is part of a large group distinguished by common physical features and reproductive boundaries. Essentially, I am defining race as a color-coded subspecies of greater breadth than ethnicity. Everybody can be ethnic. 🙂 By this construction, culture and race share similar evolutionary boundaries and ought to correlate heavily. My terminology is guided by the evidence.

In Africa the Sahara dessert separated humans to the north and south. To the south is sub-Saharan Africa where blacks developed. The aborigines of Australia are black skinned but unrelated (since the Early Stone Age, duh). Despite the demagoguery of Al Sharpon, white people are responsible for the pyramids in northern Africa, both in terms of cultural motivation and corvée labor. Ancient Egyptians were born pale white and tanned under the hot sun. They were dark-skinned Caucasians. The Mediterranean basin is called the cradle of civilization because ancient whites were so successful there. At one point the Mediterranean was a lake of the Roman Empire. Whites developed in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. The Middle East sits at the confluence of three major land masses, but also three distinct races. Intense rivalry could explain the region’s pre- and proto-Western excellence starting with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia, as far back as legible history confirms, or perhaps with the city of Susa to the east by itself or in tandem, and also starting with Crete, the sizeable island south of mainland Greece and southwest of Turkey, as far back as propitious archeology confirms. Yellows developed in central, southern, and eastern Asia. Reds developed in America, meaning in the Americas. Hispanics (Latin Americans) are a recent mix of white, black, and red in various proportions stemming from Iberian conquest of the Americas. The relative societal results of Hispanics fit a proportional averaging of the pure results of their compositional inputs. Big shock.

Oceania presents no tidy reproductive pool, but to a large extent the peoples of this area are, shall we say, orbital yellow with a remainder of aboriginal comet black transfered by coastal express. A white ancestry from India or the Middle East is also plausible. Melanesians and Australian Aborigines have a tiny genetic inheritance shared with Denosivans, an extinct ancient human species or subspecies discovered in Siberia and closely related to Neanderthals! Crog go lady boom-boom?

Agriculture marks the transition to meme evolution dominance. Mother nature judges all and delegates to some. Women are the judgers and men are the judgees of gene evolution, but men are the judgers and ideas are the judgees of meme evolution. Society is a male system accepting female junior partners who must make themselves useful under natural selection biases delegated to more rational men.

With plant agriculture came animal agriculture. Grazing and grain foraging animals were attracted to the farmer’s fields. They convert plant material into meat or poultry by fermentation. Foraging animals like omnivorous pigs and birds have few or no sweat glands, perhaps leading to speedy animal protein production under ideal circumstances but certainly poor growth rates in hot climes. Ruminants can digest the least edible plant matter by work intensive rumination coordinating four stomach chambers. Birds have two chambers. Humans and pigs have one.

Sub-Saharan Africa had zebras not horses or much other livestock species critical to civilization’s development. Zebras are untamable. In the Americas, horses became extinct during the late Pleistocene epoch, perhaps because of unsustainable hunting or food warfare by propagandistically noble savages. Poverty rocks, like subsistence farming desertification and conquerableness. The proud Amerind warrior freely roamed the plains on horseback only during European colonization. Discovery of proud warrior women Amazons in the Americas is a myth created by horny Latin explorers.

Spoken language of modern expressiveness was perhaps acquired by homo sapiens not later than 50,000 years ago. Indications are written language fully expressive of modern verbal expressiveness was invented on three separate occasions. Ancient Egyptians developed an alphabet from hieroglyphs which may have evolved from Sumerian cuneiform. Eventually, some hieroglyphs were used to represent consonant phonemes (sounds) and the glyph symbolism was economically simplified. This first alphabet lacked vowels as its progeny of Semitic written languages likewise do. The crazy Greeks added vowels and made things simple. The conquering Romans adapted the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet familiar throughout the West today. The Chinese developed a writing system of glyphs still used today. In the world’s oldest living civilization, continuity is highly prized and the heavy use of non-phonetic depiction remains. Chinese writing lacks phonetic representation so greatly that the spoken dialects equally represented by it are not mutually intelligible as spoken and foreign linguists regard the dialects as separate languages. In the Americas, only the Mayans had a written language able to capture spoken expressiveness, but they had been replaced by the Aztecs by the time Christopher Columbus did not discover India.

What way to organized primordial society is better than religion? Whilst a thousand deaths await around every corner, supernatural agency ought to be appeased. This appeasement became specialized, credible, publicly funded. Priests crowned warriors if not themselves and became the keepers of nascent knowledge gleaned in comfortable reflection. Sacrifices were made to intellectual epicureans, and what could better please pagan gods than human sacrifice? Abraham had no qualms about sacrificing his son to the Deity of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Theology evolved and denied its origins with words like ‘infidel’ and ‘heathen’. Human sacrifice gave way to animal sacrifice then token sacrifice where the population developed mentally. Mythical Moses laid down prefab precedence. Emperor Constantine used Christianity as a tamer substitute for military control. Suicidal bachelors defended extreme polygamy and high Gini coefficients. Banking became the new and improved means of material sacrifice to erudite epicureans.

Metallurgy likely originated in the Caucasus Mountains or nearby mountains to the south in the Middle East or to the west in the Balkans circa 4000 B.C. The technology spread and developed throughout Eurasia and North Africa but not sub-Saharan Africa. Separately, metallurgy originated and spread from the Peruvian region to Mesoamerica circa 950 A.D. (perhaps 700 A.D. for copper and 1200 A.D. for bronze). The Aztecs’ main application was jewelry when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in 1519. The white guys had steel.

The world’s leading civilizations have only been white or yellow. Red and black peoples have never created civilization. The advanced red societies were the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Name the greatest black society ever, if you can. Civilization is advanced and advancing society with intellectual and material innovation. Humans evolved from pack relativism to societal institutionalism. The distinction between packs and societies is the presence of a behavioral code, and government. Social formulations evolved—progressing, stagnating, regressing, expiring—from primordial pack instincts to tribal, barbaric (tribally imperial), and civilized cultures. The correlation of genetically different races with distinct levels of societal achievement over the past thousands of years suggests the capacity for meme evolution is unevenly distributed. Meme sophistication certainly is unevenly distributed.

Technocrats under the auspices of bankers and governments have ultimately failed to intellectually defend the tabula rasa like the farce of prehistoric matriarchy. There never has been matriarchy, meaning a society where women collectively had more power than men collectively. It’s still a man’s Western world, but only an elite man’s Western world. Men and women have a consistent genetic difference and thus a consistent design difference in mind and body. Pack relativism of our ancestors is suggested by woman’s intuition, uniform subordination of women in viable (existent) society, and deconstruction of Western civilization by women’s liberation.

Implications by media and academia puppets have been that genetic differences between the races and sexes are too small to matter. We homo sapiens are genetically 70% to 90% the same as mice and 95% to 98% the same as our nearest living species the great apes. The percentage amount of genetic variation between individuals within a racial group and between racial groups is similar. That fact as used by fallacious reasoning presumes a linearly proportional relationship between the size of genetic instruction variance and the magnitude of the design difference. We know the difference of one sex chromosome is the difference between having sex with a man or a woman, a very strategic 3% change that seems to trigger different gene interpretations elsewhere. The fact that some humans are closer to some chimpanzees than other humans in overall genetic difference does not make chimpanzees acculturated tea companions who won’t rip off your face, dumb broads.

Blacks, and naturally to a lesser degree Hispanics and Middle Easterners (who are part black), carry the sickle-cell anaemia gene. Having one or two from each parent provides resistance to malaria, but having two causes sickle cell disease, also fatal. About one of every 500 black Americans and one of every 36,000 Hispanic Americans, in the United States of America, have two sickle-cell anaemia genes.

The Neanderthals and Denosivans parted into separate gene pools some 300,000 years ago. About 50,000 years ago homo sapiens, it seems, began breeding with Neanderthals and Denosivans in Eurasia. Though the distribution of fossils would indicate Neanderthal genetics would be most prevalent in whites, the amount of Neanderthal genetic material is evenly spread among non sub-Saharan peoples, ranging from 1% to 4%. Denosivan fossils are discovered only in southern Siberia. Oceanians have about 5% of Denosivan genetic material and yellow people about 1%. Yellow people may also have genetic material from homo erectus. Blacks have superior immune systems and may have acquired genes from interbreeding with other homo species of sub-Saharan Africa.

Stay tuned. The available evidence suggests surprising discoveries remain. The upshot is that cultural differences could be genetic, which would explain the known differences in societal achievement by race and ethnicity over the past several thousand years. Individual results fluctuate more than group results, but that is not inconsistent with generalizations. It may be, for example, that individuals of some gene pools are more susceptible to permanent mental impairment from malnutrition than others. Consistently different results suggest steadfast causality. You either believe in the scientific philosophy or you don’t. If you don’t, why are you still reading this?

Civilization has a historical cycle not found in less sophisticated societies. Civilizations rise, bloom, ripen, rot, and fertilize. It has proven thus far impossible to have a sovereign citizenry of philosophers who would not renege on their individual liabilities and sweep them onward for some ill-timed posterity. Sometimes each cycle is progressive, at least in substantial part, as with Anglo-American history since the War of the Roses. In Imperial China, new dynasties were vibrant from the struggle to ascendancy, but luxury and time corrupted them ever so gently until a challenger could be successful.

“What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots & tyrants. It is it’s natural manure. Our Convention has been too much impressed by the insurrection of Massachusetts: and in the spur of the moment they are setting up a kite [hawk!] to keep the henyard in order.”

Slavery is a societal institution, and in the technical sense slavery is not uncivilized. Being evil is a function of moral code and relative position. Slavery, being a societal institution, has evolved from chattel slavery and serfdom through debt and wage slaveries to the current slavery economics. Primitive chattel slavery has been practiced by all races one way or another, as is the state of the art, for there is a central bank over every country and almost every central bank is a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The English words ‘slave’ and ‘Slav’ derive from the Latin word ‘sclav’ because in the early Middle Ages it was typical for Slavs to be slaves. By relative lack of achievement throughout all history, South and East Slavs are the Negroes of Caucasians, having created the nether and hind parts of Western civilization if the meaning of Western civilization is liberally and generously construed. India and the Middle East have credible achievements. Arabic numerals with the all-important aught came to Europeans from India via the Middle East. Within the Middle Ages was the Golden Age of Islam, when the slave diaspora of black Africans began. Women went to harems. Prepubescent boys might be castrated, but not on Islamic ground. The superior immune system meant a higher survival rate from the value-added surgery. Black slaves were mainstays of the salt mines in the Sahara Desert and the gold mines of Nubia (per Bernard Lewis). In Mali were black Muslims who owned white slaves. Native documentation is lacking, but red people had their share of institutional atrocities. Exploitation of people by people was and is natural, deny all you want.

The venturesome Portuguese cut out the Muslim middleman, and Western Europe followed into the Atlantic Slave Trade, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment. The industrialized United Kingdom and United States unilaterally outlawed the slave trade, having disposable machine tenders and better economics. Coolies initially from India and thereafter from China were substituted for African slaves. King Cotton ruled the U.S. South and fed the textile factories of the aforementioned industrial powers. Black slave populations did not die off on American cotton fields like on the sugar fields further south. Either way, white slave owners indulged their lusts upon black slave women as were admixed white Muslim sheiks half a world away. The fruit of such unions in the United States were as slave as their mothers. American abolition replaced chattel slavery with wage slavery and federalism with imperialism in the most righteous of garb.

Lincoln was popular, as are all democratically elected tyrants at the beginning. In martyrdom Abe has been popularized as the greatest of presidents, like some sort of founder. The oaths of allegiance inspired the Pledge of Allegiance. Siege hail! Progressivism cured the Gilded Age and the Mercantile Revolution clandestinely rolled on. Patriarchy contracted feminism and centralized democracy became terminal. The post-WWII institutions of global governance have gradually collected the burdensome sovereignty once shouldered by rank-and-file men who enforced standards not always fairly. The empire of legal-tender plantations is reconfiguring itself on the prejudices and labors of disposable useful idiots.

Propaganda enlists the dumb masses in their own demise. John Dewey led the Progressive Education Movement. The authority of truth seen by reason was replaced by the authority of group consensus. Equivalently, the American plebs transitioned from a rational (civilized) male order to an emotive (instinctual) female order. Easy pickin’s. Edward Bernays pioneered manipulation of the (instinctual, unhusbanded) public with emotive, instinctual cues delivered through mass media. The United Nations orchestrate social reengineering in the name of ending need, misery, victimization. Their causes are global warming, women, children, the poor, indigenous peoples. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was signed into law by President George H. W. Bush on 16 November 1990. The law vests ownership of prehistoric human remains of Amerind ancestors to their living tribal descendants. Tentative indications are than not all prehistoric remains indigenous to the United States of America are ‘Native American’ (red).

The remains called Kennewick Man were discovered in July 1996 on federal lands under and along the Columbia River in Lake Wallula upstream from McNary Dam in Kennewick, WA. Initial evaluations indicated that the remains were 8,000 years old and not Amerind. That did not stop a coalition of five Indian tribes and the U.S. Government (executive branch) from trying to bury the remains per NAGPRA rather than to allow uncontrolled scientists to examine the new evidence about prehistoric humans in the Americas. Eight anthropologists sued to study the remains under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act.

Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt declared in September 2000 that Kennewick Man was not of lineal descent or from the lands of the five tribe coalition but was of a ‘cultural affiliation’. Babbitt’s decision to give the remains to the tribes for burial was ostensibly based on the federally commissioned analyses of selected scientists made from 1998 to 2000. The commissioned analysis included osteological report CENWW.97.Kennewick by Powell and Rose, apparently dated 15 October 1999. The report determined the skull of Kennewick Man to have ‘southern Asian/south Pacific morphology’ and that ‘Kennewick skeleton morphologically is unlike any modern human population’. Babbitt’s dubious argument, as articulated in his letter of 21 September 2000 to Army Secretary Louis Caldera, was that ‘the geographic and oral tradition evidence establishes a reasonable link between these remains and the present-day Indian tribe claimants.’ That link was habitation in the Columbia Plateau shared by Kennewick man 8,500–9,500 years ago and four of the five claimant tribes 2,000–3,000 years ago.

Justice Magistrate John Jelderks of the United States District Court in Portland, Oregon ruled on 30 August 2002 for the plaintiff scientists to examine the skeletal remains and against tribal burial. The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Justice Jelderks ruling on 4 February 2004. It seems the legal conflict continued for another year, but the litigation was done as it did not continue to the U.S. Supreme Court.

Definition 9 of NAGPRA had thwarted U.S.-tribal efforts to bury future insight into American prehistory by requiring a clear link between unearthed artifacts and existent Amerinds tribes. It read (and still reads): “`Native American’ means of, or relating to, a tribe, people, or culture that is indigenous to the United States.”

Senator John McCain introduced bill S. 536 on 7 March 2005 to change the definition to read: “`Native American’ means of, or relating to, a tribe, people, or culture that is or was indigenous to any geographic area that is now located within the boundaries of the United States.” I have added bold font to indicate the proposed additions. The bill never passed. Plaintiff scientists studied the remains in Seattle for ten days in July 2005. Plaintiff Robson Bonnichsen was unable to join them. He died the previous December after having won in court. The deadline for appeal to the Supreme Court, 19 July 2004, had come and gone.

Your tax money is used so wisely, fellow Americans. I will not belabor the point with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) scientists made to lie about global warming, as indicated by an open letter from 49 former NASA scientists and astronauts to NASA administrator Charles Bolden, Jr. dated 28 March 2012.

The Paleo-American bones called Kennewick Man reside in storage at the Burke Museum of the University of Washington. Future technology could permit DNA testing and definitive answers to his ancestral heritage and ours. If the red people who occupied the Americas when Columbus arrived displaced or more especially exterminated a more ‘virgin’ native people, the victimhood narrative of the United Nations ploy to temporarily empower conquerable tribal red culture and people at the expense of representative white culture patriarchy would lack factual basis for lying, not that the facts much matter. I believe we have reached in 2012 the point where facts are irrelevant to public opinion or policy. News impostors already tell us what the future shall be. The history of Western civilization 2.0 has this lead: Kings’ bankers to democracies’ bankers to bankers’ democracies, moo. A concise account of history from the perspective of American labor is given in chapter 1 of my ebook Doug’s Neuropsychic Prototype for the American Have-not.

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